Retrospective analysis of the first cruise missiles developed by v.n. chelomey
To V.N. Chelomeys 100th anniversary
Military industrial corporation «NPO Mashinostroyenia», 33, Gagarina str., Reutov, Moscow region, 143966, Russia
The conditions that necessitated the creation and development of Navy cruise missile with special warheads aimed for ground targets destroy are analyzed.
Navy played the main role in solution to this problem by creating submarine forces armed with nuclear warhead missile weapon which can come to the shore line of USA and respond with the blow for a vitally important target. Taking into account the lack of ballistic missile in this period, the creation of submarine forces was the most effective antiweapon.
The development of cruise missiles in three designing departments of the Air Industry Ministry under the direction of G. M. Beriev, S. V. Ilyushin and V.N. Chelomey was analyzed in the presented article. Developments were virtually carried out on a competitive basis. Cruise missile P-10 was developed at the development design office named after G. M. Beriev. Cruise missile P-20 was developed at the S.V. Ilyushins development design office. Cruise missile P-5 was created at the V.N. Chelomeys development design office. There are given main tactical and operational characteristics and specifications of this missiles and development advantages of Chelomeys missiles put into service.
We have compared the cruise missile P-5 and similar to it the cruise missile «Regulus» developed in USA.
We provided the overall potential of Navy resulted from the armament of submarines with cruise missile P-5 and ballistic missiles designed for armament submarines to destroy ground targets.
The importance of cruise missile P-5 development was provided to ensure the defense potential of country in the middle of the 50s of last century.
After the development of cruise missile with a long range capability for ground targets destroy, during the last 1950 and early 1960 V. N. Chelomey had focused his great attention on the development of antiship missile (ASM) with OTH range (P-6, P-35, next was P-500) and underwater launched missiles called «Amethyst» (the first ASM with underwater launch in the world) and «Malachite», which were added to armoury in 1968 and 1972 respectively.
At the same time, in early 1960s V.N. Chelomey took the lead of the development of the system designed for space and maritime reconnaissance and target designation (SMRGD) which was added to the armoury in 1975. Submarine and surface ships with antiship missiles with a long-range capability have been equipped with ship complex of target guidance for this system. It could provide effective weapon use against ship formation with a full range in any place of World Ocean. Actually, the first effective reconnaissance-strike system was developed at that time.
Complex «Granite» which does not have any prototypes in the world and which is in operational service of Navy at the present time was added to the armoury in 1983.
The team under the direction of V. N. Chelomey restarted the development of cruise missile with a long range capability and nuclear warhead aimed to destroy ground targets in the middle 1970s (complex «Meteorite») for Navy and Air forces. However, according to conditions of political requirements, it was not added to the armoury.
Keywords:cruise missile, antiship cruise missile, ballistic missile, marine space reconnaissance and target acquisition system, submarine, container, flight unfolding wing
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