The airscrew effect on the aerodynamic characteristics and hinge moments of the deflected wing system under icing conditions
Aeronautical and Space-Rocket Engineering
Аuthors1, 2, 1*, 2**, 3***, 3
1. Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute named after N.E. Zhukovsky (TsAGI), Zhukovsky, Moscow region, Russia
2. Central Aerohydrodynamic Institute named after N.E. Zhukovsky, TsAGI, 1, Zhukovsky str., Zhukovsky, Moscow Region, 140180, Russia
3. Moscow Institute of Physics and Technology (National Research University), 9, Institutskiy per., Dolgoprudny, Moscow region, 141701, Russia
Among various environmental impacts on the aircraft, icing is the most dangerous one. Despite the almost century-old history of this problem research, accounting for and elimination of icing is still an actual task.
The purpose of the presented numerical study consists in researching the impact of the airscrew interference and a straight wing of a high aspect ratio of a solar battery powered aircraft on the aerodynamic characteristics and hinge moments values of the wing-flap system deflections under icing conditions.
Numerical study of the airscrew, installed at the wing tip of a high aspect ratio wing, impact on aerodynamic characteristics and hinge moments of the wing-flap system, deflected to the takeoff position (= 15°), was performed by the program based on the Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes equations solving, at the aircraft under the icing conditions. Calculated study was performed with the aircraft, which aerodynamic layout was realized by the classical scheme with cantilever high-set wing with the aspect ratio of = 23.4. Engine nacelles were placed on the wingtip. The airscrews rotation frequency was of N = 15000 rpm. The airscrews rotating direction corresponds to the vortex sheet folding from the wing tip.
Numerical studies were conducted without airscrews and with operating two-bladed airscrews, both without aircraft icing and with it. Initially the ice shapes without blow-off and with the blow-off by the airscrew were calculated. The calculation revealed that the presence of a rotating airscrew had a great impact on the ice growth formation on the wing. The ice thickness on the wing without airscrew is almost the same over the entire surface, while a high barrier of horn-shaped ice is being added to the existing one on the wing beside the tip of the airscrew blade.
Further, aerodynamic characteristics were calculated, and a hinge moment was obtained for each part of deflected wing-flap system. These calculations were performed at the angles of attack of −5°15° with the Mach number of М = 0.15 and Reynolds number of Re = 0.35·106.
Calculation results revealed that aircraft bearing surfaces icing reduced maximum lift force and increase pitching moment on pitch-up, as well as contributes to the aircraft drag increase, especially with the airscrews blow-off beyond stall angles.
The airscrew running under conditions of icing leads to the detachable zone size increase, which grows with the angle of attack increase.
The article demonstrates that icing may decrease the hinge moment of the wing-flap system. This occurs as a consequence of the overgrown ice forming such a shape below the surface of the deflected wing-flap system, which decreases pressure on its windward side. The value of the total force, acting on the deflected wing-flap system, decreases herewith, and the center of pressure of the deflected control surface is being shifted closer to the rotation axis.
Keywords:extra-high aspect ratio wing, wing icing, pulling airscrew, hinge moments, wing-flap system
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