The intake manifold structural improvements of the dynamic supercharging air system of the piston engine adapted for aviation application
Aeronautical and Space-Rocket Engineering
Central Institute of Aviation Motors named after P.I. Baranov, CIAM, 2, Aviamotornaya str., Moscow, 111116, Russia
There is a demand nowadays for small aircraft engines of a power up to 500 hp. Piston engines possess competitive edge in this category due to their light weight, low fuel consumption and decent weight-to-power ratio.
The most feasible way of ensuring this demand consists in converting automobile engines to aviation application and standards. Aviation engines are running for the most part at greater crankshaft rotation frequency and higher loads. It leads to the necessity for conventional systems alteration, including inlet manifold.
Earlier, the adapted piston engine was developed. In the framework of the engine-demonstrator, the input manifold, ensuring dynamic supercharging, was installed. Its size and shape were non-optimal from the gas exchange viewpoint. That is why structural refining of the manifold was required.
The greatest problem with the conventional manifold consisted in the uneven power distribution among the cylinders, due to the difference in filling up to 20% from the average value. The manifold was being designed for the lab tests as well, and fitted poorly the aircraft layout.
The purpose of the presented research consisted in equalizing mass flow through each cylinder with achievement of more even filling, which would ensure more even operation. It was desirable as well to ensure more aerodynamic shape and minimize pressure losses.
The core method of flow analyzing in manifold was the 3D CFD modeling. The non-stationary RANS model with realizable k-epsilon turbulence model and enhanced EWT was employed.
The main problems, such as dead zones in the back part of the manifold, the swirl in the front one and mutual effect of the branch pipes were determined by the geometry analyzing.
The following solutions were applied: the dead zone filling; the front part expansion for the swirl dissipation, and separators introduction. Each solution was applied iteratively with the search of preferable dimension and geometry up to the potential solutions exhaustion.
The resulting manifold design allowed achieving 50% and 30% reduction of maximum and average air consumption correspondingly. More aerodynamic shape was achieved. Pressure losses changes were within the error margins.
Keywords:gas turbine engines of narrow-body aircraft, combustion chamber workflow, gorenje technologies DOC, TAPS, RQL
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